With the advent of the Christian church and post the Renaissance Period of the 16th century the “spirit” edge of the older religions had been blunted by a cultural revolution dictated by modern philosophies and the codification of preexisting myths into a comprehensive form of literature leading to a general dismissal of the spirit world as nonexistent or the product of a society that has not yet reached the pinnacle of its evolution.
Often however it is the rituals and practices of these “lesser evolved communities” that provide an answer when none other exists and it only stands to reason that when there is no other scientific or medical explanation available, the answer lies in the field of the occult.
Occult practitioners and black magicians continue to earn a reasonable living preying on the calamities that befall others and isolated schools continue to exist for the astute pupil who is unable to afford the inflated cost of a college education. These schools provide a means to earning a livelihood from what is commonly perceived to be a forgotten art.
After an extended period of service, the graduating student is free to accumulate as much wealth as he desires. Man is by nature a pagan made to conform to accepted norms by the laws and agents of governance. If these laws fail to exist, he’d regress to his old ways very quickly.
The most common and widely practiced variant of black magic is necromancy. It is the art of summoning the dead and it is forbidden in most religious circles because of the devastating results it can produce. The practice is rampant in many communities and the most likely reason is because causing death by black magic is not yet a crime and therefore it remains the most common means of achieving an end.
Despite the intervention of the church these rituals continue to exist and the church itself does not deny the existence of spirits and other entities, divine or malevolent. The bible clearly tells us that where there is a body, there is a soul or a spirit.
The world that we live in is twofold and it can be divided into the material world i.e. the corporeal world and the spiritual world, a world that many are reluctant to admit or are compelled to find valid explanations for and most of us put it down to a trick of the mind. A trick of the mind it may be but not in the sense that many perceive it to be.
The mind itself is dualistic in nature and it is divided into the conscious mind and the subconscious mind. The conscious mind is that which is most commonly used in our day to day lives and almost 90% of the time we tend to reason things out.
The subconscious mind is the portion or section of the mind that’s always kept in abeyance, suppressed most of the time by the activities of the conscious mind and it only kicks in when the body goes into a state of paralysis, either natural or induced.
Natural paralysis occurs during sleep and induced paralysis occurs during hypnosis. In the latter state, the conscious mind is at its weakest and the subconscious mind is able to breach any resistance and break the invisible barrier that separates the conscious mind from the subconscious mind and the soul or the spirit is sometimes flung thousands of miles from its place of origin and it is often able to see and feel things that it otherwise would not.
Among the explanations offered for this phenomenon is that, the subconscious minds of all persons, past, present and possibly the future are linked to a super consciousness or a vast warehouse or a natural storage facility and we are therefore able to access the memories of another. It may also be called shared memory.
This would certainly explain the alternate personalities that often reveal themselves under hypnosis like in the case of T.E., a 37-year-old American housewife who under hypnosis became Jensen Jacoby from Sweden despite never having been to Sweden.
She started speaking in Swedish without warning and she spoke it like a native speaker, with a tinge of Norwegian. Researches later came to the conclusion that Jensen Jacoby, the alternate personality of T.E., was a Swedish immigrant who migrated to New Sweden in the 17th century.
More compelling yet is the case of Delores, who under hypnosis, to cure her back pain, suddenly started speaking in German. She not only spoke in fluent German but she also wrote in the language despite having no knowledge of German.
In later sessions, Gretchen, the alternate personality of Delores, went on to describe her previous life in Germany in detail, including aspects of her home, the names of her parents, the town she lived in and the political situation in Germany at that time. She was murdered when she was 16.
Interestingly enough Gretchen did not share the same reality as Delores, which is usually the case with possessions. Gretchen was under the impression that she was speaking to strangers in the streets of her hometown in Germany, Eberswalde, some seventy odd years back.
Shared memory or something more alarming? The theory of the collective consciousness to some degree explains the case of Delores. The subconscious mind is a vast warehouse, a library of indefinite memories and if this theory were applied, it would explain the link between Gretchen and Delores. It is difficult for possession to occur over vast distances like that which separate the United States from Germany. It would have been different if Delores had actually been to Germany and visited or lived in Eberswalde.
For haunting or possessions to occur the victim needs to share a certain proximity to the spirit for example have lived in the same house or used an item of jewelry that belonged to the spirit - time is but a relative mode of regarding things. Events may, in some sense, exist always, both in the past and in the future.
Time is like a moving picture reel, containing the future scene at the present moment, though out of sight, dream time is an absolute consciousness in which the past, the present and the future, exist as a single perception.
The Austrian Abbot Alois Weisinger, sheds more light on the subject. According to him, there are methods whereby a person can receive intimation of future events by dreams, of whatsoever his mind mediates upon. “Spirits” he says do show these things and give secret information and warnings, in dreams and visions.
Having witnessed these events personally and having had a firsthand view, of possession, trance and shamanic rituals, let me first caution the reader that this is not a journey for those with a timid mind. I can safely say that god is the best and only protection one can find.
“The Church” the learned abbot writes “does not deny the possibility of diabolical possession and it even has a special ordination conferring powers of exorcism for the casting out of devils, but she enjoins us to treat everything as natural until the contrary is proved, a rule that she applies with particular strictness when alleged miracles are cited in the canonization process.”
“In these circumstances, it is surely legitimate to present in the light of theology and of Christian philosophy an explanation which seems to come closer to the truth …. One could call this theory the theory of the spirit-soul and its basic assumption is that the depths of this spirit-soul are as yet insufficiently known to us.”
Max Heindel elaborates on the subject. Spirits and nature according to him are inexplicably connected and therefore there is a nexus between spirits and the land and this certainly holds true in cases of possession.
“In the middle ages, when many people were still endowed with a remnant of negative clairvoyance, they spoke of gnomes and elves or fairies, which roamed about the mountains and forests. These were the earth spirits. They also told of the undines or water sprites, which inhabited rivers and streams, of sylphs which were said to dwell in the mists above moat and moor as air spirits, but not much was said of the salamanders, as they are fire spirits, and therefore not so easily detected, nor so readily accessible to the majority of people.”
From the above paragraph we can adduce that spirits not only exist but can further be divided into different types of spirits i.e. earth, water, air and fire spirits and it further implies a nexus between spirits and the elements, using the contemporary definition of elements.
More compelling then situations where the alternate personality appears under hypnosis are cases where the other personality appears spontaneously without warning and the subject begins to talk and act in a manner that’s completely different to his or her normal self. The case of Uttar Huddar and her alternate personality Sharada is extremely moving.
Sharada first appeared in 1974, when Huddar was thirty-three years old speaking Bengali and dressing in Bengali style rather than in the style appropriate to her home state of Maharashtra. She appeared in a hospital where Huddar was being treated for a psychological illness. Sharada displayed no knowledge of modern innovations and lacked the ability to use modern utensils. It was like she had stepped out from another time.
Sharada provided the names of her family members in Bengal to investigators, which were later verified through Bengali genealogical records. Huddar, the actual personality, had no knowledge of these family members.
Sharada was not aware that she was dead and she acted as if she was still alive. Sharada did state however that she was bitten on the toe of her right foot by a cobra, which was the last incident that she described in her life, without realizing that she had died from the snake bite.
Post the First World War there was a surge in occult studies and Freud attributed the desperate search for answers outside the traditional sphere of religion to the political turmoil, economic collapse and the social dislocation that followed the war.
Freud further went on to speculate that scientific discoveries and theories stimulated public interest in the occult and he cited the discovery of radium and the theory of relativity as two examples that undermined the integrity of science.
He considered a possible connection between occultists and psychoanalysts on the basis that modern science rejected both and discredited both as disreputable. We should he said “be prepared to find reciprocal sympathy between them”. “They have both experienced the same contemptuous and arrogant treatment by official science”.
What many students of the occult fail to understand is that occultism is as much a science of the mind as it is a science of faith and answers unravel themselves quicker when a student is prepared to probe the subtle nuances of the mind. True magic originates from the self and it can only be tapped by developing one’s own inner and lofty nature. The key ingredient is faith.
The field of studying the unknown or parapsychology was for many years regarded as mysticism and the hesitation to formally recognize it as a science of the mind was attributed to the fact that should its nexus to occultism be proved by the principle of analytics, committed to a dispassionate appraisal of the facts, the foundations of modern science would collapse.
Freud predicted that occultists “will be hailed as liberators from the burden of intellectual bondage, they will be joyfully acclaimed by all the credulity lying ready to hand since the infancy of the human race and the childhood of the individual. There may follow a fearful collapse of critical thought, of determinist standard and of mechanistic science”.
Freud feared that the formal recognition of occultism would spell the end of legitimization and exterminate the need for analytics. If occultists were able to provide all the answers there was no longer a need for laborious procedures. So profound were his fears that he subsequently felt obliged to limit his studies of the occult to his personal capacity and he withheld his findings from the public domain.
Occultism is closely related to mathematics and it is a science of formulas and equations. It is not the random summoning of spiritual matter but the logical step by step accumulation of spiritual knowledge. Mastery of the occult science is the culmination of specific processes and procedures that produce a desired result.
When the apprentice begins to explore the many facets of the mind answers will unfold in numerous ways. The most common method of stumbling across these answers which initially won’t make sense is through sleep either natural or induced. Carl Jung the renowned Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist was a noted proponent of the occult.
Jung was admitted in a hospital after a minor mishap and during treatment he lost consciousness. He experienced a phenomenon commonly referred to as the outer body experience. It is easily distinguishable from a dream because the symptoms are markedly different. In a dream, the sleeper withdraws slipping into a corridor of the mind. During the outer body experience, the sleeper finds himself drifting upwards away from his body before there is a burst and he is flung thousands of miles away from his physical embodiment.
Jung found himself floating thousands of miles above the earth traveling vast distances in a matter of seconds. He hovered above oceans before crossing arid sand filled deserts and found himself seated atop the snow-capped peaks of the Himalayas. He was almost propelled out of orbit before he turned back and drifted south towards a huge monolith when he saw the entrance to a temple and before it was a Hindu sage sitting on a lotus. He realized that inside the temple was the answer to his existence. When a person experiences this phenomenon, he has breached the barrier that stands between intellectual imprisonment and spiritual freedom.
Let us now look at situations where a person receives intimation with regards to a future event. On the morning of June 28, 1914 at approximately 3.15 am Bishop Lanyi wrote “I awoke from a terrible dream. I dreamt that I had gone to my desk early in the morning to look through the mail that had come in. On top of all the other letters there lay one with a black border, a black seal, and the arms of the Archduke (Francis Ferdinand)”.
“I immediately recognized the letter’s handwriting, and saw at the head of the notepaper in blue coloring a picture which showed me a street and a narrow side-street. Their highnesses sat in a car, opposite them sat a general and an officer next to the chauffeur”.
“On both sides of the street there was a large crowd. Two young men sprang forward and shot at their highnesses”. “The text of the letter was as follows: ‘Dear Dr Lanyi: Your Excellency. I wish to inform you that my wife and I were the victims of a political assassination. We recommend ourselves to your prayers. Cordial greetings from your Archduke Franz. Sarajevo, June 28, 3.15 a.m.”
Having written the document, Bishop Lanyi dressed, called the household together, gave them the sad news that he had received and said that he would at once offer mass for their highnesses in his private chapel.
At 3.30 p.m. on that same day, June 28, 1914, a telegram arrived to say that the Archduke and his wife had been assassinated in Sarajevo. The crime occurred at 11 a.m., nearly eight hours after the Archduke had notified Bishop Lanyi of his own murder in a dream.
As aspiring paranormal researchers, we need to find a determinant that will help us distinguish between intimations and alternate personalities that are a result of a person's own latent abilities and actual cases of possession, which is by virtue a difficult proposition.
In 1671 in Groton Massachusetts a young lady by the name of Elizabeth Knapp began to display signs of an alternate personality.
She was a servant in the Willard household, and without warning the sixteen-year-old began to act in a strange manner and would burst into inexplicable laughter or utter audible shrieks when asked what was wrong.
Her condition deteriorated rapidly and she had even complained of strangulation and had attempted to throw herself into the fire on several occasions.
Knapp would make senseless statements repeating the words "money, money," and sometimes "sin and misery" and her body would go into violent convulsions.
"Her tongue would be for many hours glued to the roof of her mouth, so that no fingers applied to it could remove it. Six men were scarce able to hold her in some of her fits, but she would skip about the house yelling and howling and looking hideous, her tongue being drawn out of her mouth to an extraordinary length”.
In his book, “Epidemiological Spirit Possession among the Maasai in Tanzania” Finnish author Arvi Hurskainen states that a large number of Maasai women experience possession at some time or other. “In a certain survey almost half (47%) of adult females had experienced the spirit possession phenomena and in almost half of the spirit possession cases the women had reproductive problems” - reproductive problems are among the over 100 symptoms of spirit possession.
In a case published in the East African Medical Journal, November 2000 edition, “E.D., a twenty-three-year-old single male from Kpando Dzoanti in the Volta Region of Ghana, a predominantly rural area of Ghana attended a general adult psychiatric outpatient clinic at the Accra Psychiatric Hospital (APH). He was accompanied by his mother and other relatives who claimed that E.D. had been possessed by a spirit for the past three years.
“The onset of his “possession” was sudden and started just before his final examination at his college. He believed that a spirit had taken hold of him and that it had made him so forgetful, that he could not take his examinations.
He also started behaving “abnormally” and this included wondering around aimlessly in his village. He further claimed that he had no control over his actions.
In his own words …. “It was the spirit that was making me do it, and putting thoughts into my mind, which are foreign to my religious beliefs as a Roman Catholic." According to him he could hear voices from outside his head, commenting on his actions and criticizing some of them. He was certain that the voices were that of the spirit.
One of the most talked about cases of possession in recent times is that of Anneliese Michel. I’m not going to go into the facts of the case too much but it is important because it dismisses many of the myths that are often associated with the possession phenomenon.
Firstly, it clearly tells that possession doesn’t only occur in rural, isolated communities and that it can also happen in modern, contemporary societies and secondly, it also tells us that the Roman Catholic Church does perform exorcisms but it does so very rarely and with a great deal of hesitation - the facts of the case will explain its reluctance.
In this particular case the victim after having displayed outward signs of possession received a lot of medical attention but the medications didn’t seem to have any effect on her and according to most sources, she displayed 6 different alternate personalities. Her condition deteriorated with time despite taking the medication that was prescribed and the intervention of the church. To some degree she was like the girl Regan in the movie the exorcist.
The movie, by the way, was based on a novel by William Blatty but what many people don’t realize is that the book itself was based on a true story. The child was a 13-year-old boy who was particularly attached to his aunty, a spiritualist and she introduced him to the Ouija board (spirit board).
When she died, he tried to contact her through the Ouija board and that’s how the whole thing started. The boy was assigned the pseudonym Roland Doe by the priests who performed the exorcism.
Both cases are well documented because the cases went to trial and there are pages and pages of transcripts that a diligent student can siphon through.
As to the denomination of the church that performed the exorcism, it was the Roman Catholic Church or to be more precise the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) who without doubt have a lot of experience in the field particularly because of their work in South and Central America where cases of possession are more frequent. Exorcisms are a lot more common than a lot of people perceive them to be.
As paranormal researchers, we need to know and to understand as much about the possession phenomenon as possible and to realize that it occurs in most communities and to draw parallels where possible.
We have to establish, if possible, certain rules or guidelines to aid us in our research. To start with we have to have it clear in our heads that possession in most cases, does not occur on its own. There has to be something that has triggered the possession as in the case of Ronald Doe - the Ouija board.
It also tells how dangerous Ouija boards really are. Similarly, another common game, especially among young teenagers, the spirit of the coin, can also produce similar undesirable results – the older the coin, the more potent the spirit that is summoned.
Possession in most cases starts with the victim coming in contact with something that is owned by the dead person and if the person has died an untimely death or an unnatural death for example death by accident or suicide then the lingering spirit has a greater propensity to haunt or possess.
These spirits are extremely restless and in instances of such deaths it is best to find out if the last rites had been performed and if they had been performed in accordance with the dead person’s religion.
If the last rites have not been performed then it is just best to perform the last rites as dictated by custom, tradition, and religion and to try and set the spirit at ease and to prompt it to leave the world of the living and continue with its journey thereafter.
What is extremely compelling in the case of Anneliese was the grueling manner in which the exorcism was performed and it ultimately led to her death. The priests were charged with negligent homicide and the cause of death was determined to be malnutrition and dehydration.
Paranormal research requires a high degree of self-honesty. If we were to, by chance stumble across cases of what could be actual instances of possession than there is always the possibility that we can’t cure or help the victim and that being the case it is best to leave it to someone who is better at it for example someone schooled in religion.
By all means do the basics well i.e. gather as much information as possible and apply the process of analytical thinking before seeking the aid and assistance of a spiritual medium or a priest, but remember to draw the line between what can and cannot be done.
Let us now look at another variant of the possession phenomenon that is equally challenging where the victims acquire the ability to receive intimation of future events and are able to speak in languages that are previously unknown to them.
In 1906 a young orphan at St. Michael’s Mission in Natal, South Africa was recorded as being possessed but unlike the previous two cases of possession that we have already mentioned, Clara Germana Cele, a 16-year-old girl of native African origin became the sudden recipient of gifts that could at best be only described as extraordinary.
The child was suddenly able to speak and understand several languages, which she had no prior knowledge of and she could see into the future especially with events pertaining to the people around her.
Before I go any further, I’d like to point out that the ability to speak in tongues or speak in languages that the speaker has no prior knowledge of and the ability to see into the future, is also common among those who are extremely pious.
The apostles for example could speak in other languages and the Book of Corinthians tells us of people with special skills who are not only able to speak in languages that are unknown to them but are also able to interpreted what others have said in languages that they are unfamiliar with.
Likewise, the dream that Bishop Lanyi had prior to the Sarajevo murders also clearly tells us that people who are devoted to their faith do receive intimations of future events with regards or reference to others who are close to them.
Based on the two exceptional gifts that the 16-year-old Clara Germana Cele had displayed it is impossible to ascertain whether she was possessed or otherwise and if anything, she seemed to display outward signs of having acquired talents or abilities that belonged solely within the pages of a bible.
Therefore, it is not a phenomenon that is novel or unheard of but the question all researchers must ask themselves is where does the ability come or stem from? Is it from a source that we perceive to be divine or is from a source that one would call or consider unwholesome.
I must also throw into the equation the fact that normal people have in the past suddenly displayed the ability to not only speak but to also write in languages that they have no prior knowledge of under the influence of a hypnotist as in the case of T.E. and Delores – two cases that we have touched on earlier.
As paranormal researchers, we cannot come to the conclusion that someone is possessed based on the fact that he or she has suddenly acquired the ability to speak in another language or receives intimation of future events because there may be other factors that we are unaware of that has helped them acquire those abilities.
There were however some other disturbing facts in the case that led those around her to conclude that Clara was indeed possessed. Firstly, she began to resent all forms of religious artifacts or suffered from a sudden bout of religiophobia and secondly, she responded violently to the priests who attended to her. In addition to that she was also able to levitate or float up in the air without the aid of any mechanical contraptions.
None of the facts on their own would lead us to the conclusion that the child was possessed but if we look at it as a whole, assuming that Clara had acquired the skills at the same time that she started resenting priests and avoiding religious artifacts, it can lead investigators to the conclusion that the child had indeed acquired her sudden abilities as a result of diabolical possession.
Would the situation have been any different if the child did not display any form of resentment towards her religion and religious artifacts? I think the answer would be in the affirmative.
Fortunately, Clara was not subjected to prolonged periods of exorcism and her sessions were over within a matter of days and she was back to her normal self once the sessions were concluded. According to the priests who performed the exorcism the possession was triggered when the child made a pact with satan.
In more recent times a woman named “Julia” began displaying the same symptoms as Clara Germana Cele. Julia had a history of being involved with satanic groups and because it occurred less than a decade ago (2008), there appears to be irrefutable evidence to suggest that all of the above can and did occur.
Julia was observed by a team of priests, assistants, laymen and qualified psychiatrists who in addition to witnessing all the symptoms in the case of Clara Germana Cele, also witnessed books, dishes and other items flying around the room when the alternate personalities appeared. It eventually led them to the conclusion that Julia was indeed demonically possessed.
I must add however that Julia had never been in favor of the church and this is made amply evident by her involvement with satanic groups, prior to her being diagnosed as suffering from possession and therefore her resentment towards priests and other religious artifacts should not be factored into the equation.
The other point I’d like to raise with reference to diabolical possession is, if we do start recognizing diabolical possession as something that occurs naturally without conducting more research on the subject, what happens when it is raised as a defense say for example in a homicide?
That was exactly what happened (raising the defense of diabolic possession) in the case of Arne Cheyenne Johnson (Arne). It was the first case in the United States where the defense sought an acquittal for murder by virtue of the defendant being a victim of diabolic possession.
Prior to committing the murder, the defendant had participated in three exorcisms involving his girlfriend’s 11-year-old brother David who according to reports was possessed by 43 different spirits and in one of the sessions Arne had challenged one of the spirits to enter his body and was possessed as a result.
Arne didn’t have any prior convictions and from all accounts he was a normal person. He changed after the incident during the exorcism session and he developed an alternate personality that would appear in a particularly menacing or intimidating manner. Most sources conclude that he was possessed by the spirit that he had challenged.
Prior to the murder Arne and his landlord, Allan, had been seen drinking heavily in the company of Arne’s girlfriend, Deborah, after which they returned to the apartment that Arne and Deborah shared. A fight broke out between Arne and Allan and in the scuffle that followed Arne stabbed Allan. The defense went to great lengths to try and establish diabolical possession.
At this stage it is important to mention that exorcisms can not only go wrong but can go drastically wrong at times so it’s best not to attempt them unless one is rigorously trained and mentally conditioned to perform them.
In 2014 a Maryland woman and her friend stabbed her two toddlers to death and injured her two other children while performing an exorcism because they thought the “the devil was inside” the children.
The pair later told the police that they were part of a demon assassin cult whose calling was to hunt demons. It may sound like it was taken out of the pages of a fantasy fiction novel but there are people who think in this manner and become overly preoccupied with the concept of good and evil. What’s good and what’s evil is subjective and it is often a question of perception. It differs from person to person.
In the Son of Sam case, David Berkowitz claimed that he was ordered to kill 6 victims and injure 7 others by his neighbor’s dog Harvey. The dog was a four legged representation of a demon and it belonged to his neighbor Sam.
A lot of what was said or written looked like facts or details that someone could have picked out from a book and structured or organized to make it look like a crime that was committed as a result of diabolical possession. Therefore, it is difficult to determine if it was indeed diabolical possession or something else that compelled the perpetrator to kill.
The accused confessed to the crimes but later amended his confession to say that he was a member of a violent satanic cult and that streamlined his account with other cases of possession.
There is a standard pattern that emerges with possession in that the victim has an intense aversion to anything that is holy or sacred, including blessed objects and images. So, if for some reason Arne or David didn’t display any type of aversion to religious objects then the chances are, they were not possessed.
It is also worth adding the obvious in that, the “aversion to religions objects”, must be strong, tangible, discernable aversions as opposed to mere dismissals.
I’m also going to revert to instances of alternate personalities that appear under the influence of a hypnotist. If these alternate personalities are not averse to religion or religious artifacts then it is not possible for us to come to the conclusion that the subjects are possessed.
In the case of Delores for example, the alternate personality Gretchen Gottlieb, in one particular conversation mentioned Pope Leo several times and she repeatedly spoke of religious tensions.
Likewise, if there is an association to a satanic or demonic cult(s) it must be evident i.e. the victim must display or have knowledge that is peculiar to satanic cults or there should be some tangible evidence that the victim (of possession) has been involved or has performed dark rites.
Thus far we’ve looked at cases of possession from the western perspective and to have a better understanding of the subject, it would be worth our while to briefly turn our attentions to the sub-continent (including Nepal and Bhutan) where possessions are much more frequent and where exorcisms are performed on an almost daily basis.
The concept of demonic possession does not exist in the sub-continent and while possession is more common or more acceptable here, demonic possession is attributed solely to malevolent or malicious spirits and are perceived to be the returning spirits of those that have died an un-timely death.
Possession is also attributed to charms (hexes) that have been directed at the victim as a result of jealously or some other enmity that though they may seem trivial and inconsequential to others are serious enough to warrant a visit to the local black magician.
The spirits that are used are the spirits that are most likely to possess a victim i.e. the spirits of those that have died as a result of accidents, murders and suicides.
The more grotesque the death the more vengeful the spirit and these spirits are classed or categorized as belligerent spirits. Regardless of whether possession occurs naturally or is the result of a curse or a malediction it often results in serious or fatal illnesses.
In countries like Bhutan even normal football matches require the intervention of a shaman and it is not uncommon for the opposing teams to visit their respective shamans prior to the match to bring about a turn of good-fortune.
The symptoms of possession are more or less the same everywhere and this includes the alternate personalities that appear. However, there is an additional element that isn’t mentioned or covered in cases of possessions that originate from the west in that possession or what we accept as possession is a state that can be induced i.e. the person as in the instances of shamans can decide whether he or she wants or wishes to be possessed.
Possession in the sub-continent can be divided into two types - induced possession as in the case of shamans and possession in the normal sense of the word or possession which occurs naturally.
The trance state is relevant in both instances because in either case there are visible changes in the shaman or the victim for example changes in their voice, in their mannerisms, in their appearance and sometimes the shaman or the victim displays additional abilities otherwise not associated to him or her for example the ability to speak in a different language or the sudden ability to predict or foretell future events (clairvoyance or precognition).
Now, possession in the sub-continent is also divided into possession by divine entities for example heavenly and celestial deities and possession by malevolent spirits.
The former occurs mostly during non-Vedic religious festivities or unorthodox Hindu rites that are synonymous to the locality or the principality and the subject (not necessarily a shaman) goes into the trance state and starts to display all the symptoms that are associated to possession. The subject can slip into the trance state merely by chanting mantras.
This type of possession can also occur during prayers at home or at temples and it is by no means harmful. In most cases and instances it lasts for no longer than a few minutes or so and the subject is no worse for wear.
The latter type of trance state occurs naturally or when the victim has not done anything to prompt matters and it is classed or categorized as non-induced possession.
In almost all the latter type cases the victim is possessed by a spirit that is evil or malicious and it is either a result of unfortunate circumstances or the outcome of a hex that has been directed at the victim for some reason or the other and in these instances the victim has to be exorcised to remove the malevolent spirit from the body and to rid the person of the curse or the malediction that has resulted in the victim being possessed.
Once it has been established that the victim has been possessed, the symptoms of possession are more or less the same with recorded cases in the west and once the victim has sought medical treatment (though I must admit that in most instances victims of perceived possession especially in rural areas are never brought to a physician) and the treatment does not seem to work, the victim then is brought before a shaman and an exorcism is performed.
In many cases, it works. Anyone who is willing to take a trip to certain rural areas in the sub-continent can witness these exorcisms personally.
The shaman usually treats the victim after he or she enters the trance state. What the exorcist or the shaman (they are the one and the same) does is that he or she allows the essence of a divine entity or a divinity to enter his or her physical body (the induce trance state) after performing certain rites or chanting specific mantras that are known only to the shaman (these chants and mantras are kept secret and in many cases it is believed that the chants and mantras of invocation are given to the shaman prior to the shaman becoming a shaman by the divine spirit that has chosen the shaman to be its messenger).
Hindu priests do not perform exorcisms because it is not their role or function. The function of a priest is to keep the religious teachings intact and to adhere to or to conform to the rules of worship as prescribed by the Vedas and the Puranas.
Shamanic teachings are more sutra and tantric orientated and they are not rites and rituals associated with orthodox or contemporary Hinduism.
Delores - Gretchen Gottlieb
On May 10, 1970, a Methodist minister by the name of Caroll Jay conducted a hypnosis session on his wife Delores with the aim and objective of curing her back pain. For those of you who are wondering why someone would go to a hypnotist to cure his or her back pain well the answer is because the pain may have been caused by an accident or an injury that the patient has forgotten about or it may be the result of repressed memories.
By bringing those memories to light, hypnotists hope to help patients come to terms with what’s happened and thereby put them on the road to recovery. It is a separate subject by itself and I’ll elaborate on it when the time permits.
While under hypnosis or induced sleep the hypnotist will ask the patient a series of questions and in the beginning at least, the patient will reply with a simple yes or no.
When Caroll started asking his wife questions under hypnosis, she did reply, as per the norm, but oddly enough she replied in a language that was foreign to her i.e. a language that she had no prior knowledge of and her answers were all in German.
This prompted Caroll to question his wife further and in so doing, he managed to establish the identity of the speaker. Her name was Gretchen Gottlieb and she was murdered when she was 16 years old by some men in a forest close to the town of Eberswalde, in the 1870’s, while she was waiting for her uncle. The information came to light after a series of sessions.
Gretchen lived in particularly difficult times, during a period known as Kulturkampf – which is in reference to a struggle between the Roman Catholic Church and the political powers that were trying to subject the church to a written constitution which under most circumstances will limit or place constrains on the powers of the church.
She also lived during the time of Martin Luther who was a German professor of theology, a priest, a monk and a protestant reformist. Gretchen clearly indicated that she was a Roman Catholic and that she was uncomfortable with the changes that were taking place to the extent that she was intimidated by what was happening and transpiring around her.
She was the only daughter of Herman and Erika Gottlieb. Herman was the town burgomaster (mayor). Her mother Erika had passed away when she was 8 and she lived with her father Herman who she described as an elderly man with grey silvery hair. They were attended to by a cook Frau Schilder or Schiller.
Frau Schilder would bring her own children while she was in Gretchen’s home and Gretchen would play with her 4 children. They resided on a street called Birkenstrasse and her father from all accounts appeared to be a man of at least moderate means.
Gretchen was a well behaved girl who replied quietly to the questions that were posed to her. She was averse to the changes that were taking place and resented the implications on her family. The struggle between the church and the reformists had placed a great burden on her family and as a result her father had been imprisoned.
I think it’s safe to speculate a bit here and it is possible that her father had been imprisoned because of his views in favor of the Roman Catholic Church and that the young lady was distressed by his imprisonment.
According to most sources she didn’t know how to read or write but the alternate personality of Delores Jay wrote up to 40 words in German in one session. So there is some discrepancy there.
There is also some mystery surrounding her death. There are some sources that quote her as having died from a serious illness but all sources confirm that she died at the age of 16.
While there are suggestions that there may be a hint of possession, I’m going to rule it out. She wasn’t in favor of the reformists but she accepted her faith to the extent that she spoke freely about it. I’m also not certain if the line of questioning prompted her to speak about her religion or if Gretchen herself was trying to lead the people who were questioning her in another direction.
There are 3 possibilities that I would like to consider here. The first is that there is a genetic link i.e. a genetic component that stores the memories of earlier generations and hands it down to the next. These memories maybe repressed or suppressed memories and they may never come to light until and unless they are triggered by a specific event. In the case of Delores it was the act of subjecting her to hypnotic sleep.
However that would imply that there is a familial bond but according to the facts as they are, Gretchen was an only child and she died childless at a very young age. Therefore despite the theory being valid and applicable in certain situations, it does not warrant further examination in this particular instance.
The second possibility is that Caroll Jay whether intentionally or otherwise may have used a technique known as past life regression. It works on the principle that our mind is an unlimited storage facility and all things past, present and future are stored in the mind’s memory banks or as some people like to call it the unconscious or the subconscious mind. Past life regression is a process that unlocks the memories that are hidden in the endless vaults of our minds including those that belong to a past existence.
Therefore what has transpired during the numerous sessions is that the memories of Delores in her past life have been brought to light through the process of hypnosis. This of course would imply that life is a continuous process and that we all go through what is commonly known or perceived to be the birth-death cycle.
If the alternate personality was indeed the result of past life regression we can conclude that Delores was in fact Gretchen in her past life. During the regressive process, the hypnotist guides the patient (subject) back in time towards certain events in the past and it is possible that Caroll Jay, the hypnotist, went too far back in time and uncovered memories that belonged to Delores when she was Gretchen.
Gretchen is an extremely intriguing personality as far as alternate personalities go and there is something about her that paints a poignant picture. Even as I write this I can’t help but wonder if there is something that can be or should be done that we haven’t done or if there is something that we should do and that brings me to our third possibility.
Delores without knowing it or realizing it may be a spirit medium and Gretchen used her to communicate with the hypnotist. I don’t know if it is possible to study to become a spiritual medium or if it possible to acquire the knowledge through books and other reading materials using the contemporary meaning that is attached to study.
It is possible in Hinduism but it requires the help of a teacher who is well versed in the relevant texts and they are not easy to find. In most cases however it is a latent ability that many people have and they are not aware of it until something prompts them or urges them in the appropriate direction.
According to most sources spirit mediums draw their energy from spirits around them which is not wrong and it leads me to come to the conclusion that there must have been something in the room or thereabouts that belonged to Gretchen.
It must have been something she valued for example a doll, an item of furniture or jewelry, the possibilities are endless, and Gretchen’s spirit is somehow attached to that item. It’s not really possession at all; it’s just that Gretchen’s spirit has used Delores as a channel to communicate with others.
Spirits especially of those who have died under unnatural circumstances tend to linger around the people or the objects that they value most. In Gretchen’s case she died an untimely death and her spirit may linger around an object that she particularly cherished.
The object was most likely in the room and when Delores was put under hypnotic sleep, the channels were opened i.e. Delores became the conduit through which Gretchen relayed her message(s).
So what did Gretchen really want? I think the only thing she wanted or desired was to tell her story and it is a compelling story that is worth telling a hundred times over. I think she wanted to be accorded her last rites in the manner that she was accustomed to or in the manner in which her mother was buried in.
She was murdered and her father was in prison at the time of her death. She may never have been buried in the manner prescribed by the Roman Catholic faith and she may never have been accorded her last rites. Doing so in the manner prescribed by the faith and religion she was born in and accepted may set her spirit at ease.
Sharada – Uttara Huddar
The case of Uttara Huddar and her alternate personality Sharada presents us with a unique opportunity to study what might possibly be an actual case of an external alternate personality entering the body of another, which results in dramatic changes to the actual person.
Let us start by looking into the personalities of both Uttara Huddar and her alternate personality Sharada to give us some understanding of both personalities and to try and comprehend the cultural diversities that separate both personalities and the salient features or factors that brought them together and eventuated in a melding of sorts. Before we go any further let me just say that I am not at all convinced that this is a case of possession in the ordinary sense of the word.
Uttara Huddar was born on Friday, the 14th of March 1941 (Friday is a day synonymous to Sukracharya. Persons born on this day, theologically at least, have the faculty to see into the past, present and the future and have an affinity to the dead by virtue of Sukracharya’s ability to raise the dead) in Nagpur (a city in Maharashtra).
Venus (Sukra) is the governing planet and persons born on this day also have a closer affinity to the Goddess Durga than others. It is the prescribed day to worship the Goddess.
Furthermore, Uttara Huddar was born on the day, Holi, an important festival in the Hindu calendar was celebrated in 1941. Narashima the fourth incarnate of Vishnu was born on Holi. Under normal circumstances I’d also look into the time of her birth but since there is no information available to confirm her time of birth, we’ll have to run with what we have.
Uttara Huddar was born in Nagpur which probably derives its name from the Sanskrit word Naga which means cobra. According to Uttara’s mother, when she was pregnant with Uttara, she had repeated dreams of being bitten by a snake on the foot and as a child Uttara was unusually afraid of snakes and suffered from acute ophiophobia.
Uttara was the 5th of six children born to the Huddars. Her father, G.M. Huddar was from Maharashtra and her mother Manorama was from the south. She had a normal childhood and like her father she took an interest it Bengali literature, artifacts and Bengali people. Being a native Maharashtrian she dressed, spoke and acted in a manner that is peculiar to most Maharashtrians. Uttara had lived all her life in the areas of Nagpur and Wardha.
In school Uttara was an average student who actively participated in dance and drama. She studied Sanskrit for three years in high school and was privately tutored in Sanskrit for an additional year. She'd taken and passed a special examination in Sanskrit.
In college, however, she abandoned Sanskrit and took up science. Later she dropped science and studied English and public administration instead. Eventually she obtained a double M.A. in both subjects.
In 1974 Uttara’s life changed completely when her personality was suddenly and unexpectedly supplanted by a new personality that appeared without notice. The name of the new personality that appeared was Sharada and she was completely different from Uttara. From all accounts and from cross referencing the details that were given by interviewers, researchers came to the conclusion that Sharada was someone who had lived between 1810 – 1830 in the state of Bengal and had died more than a century prior to Uttara’s birth.
Among all the alternate personalities that I have researched or come across, I’m particularly fascinated by Sharada because of the drastic and sometimes dramatic changes that occurred when Sharada was in control.
Is it possible for two separate souls or spirits to share or inhabit the same body? The answer in short is yes. It is common among shamans and it includes changes in their voice and in their mannerisms. These changes are not exhaustive and at times they may acquire additional linguistic capabilities that are pertinent or relevant to the spirit that has taken temporary control of their body or physique.
It is called the induced trance state i.e. a state or a stage where a shaman, with full knowledge, allows another soul or spirit, be it celestial, heavenly or otherwise to enter his or her body and it is a common enough phenomenon.
That however does not imply that Uttara was a shaman, no, not by any stretch of the imagination. I am merely saying that the onset of the Sharada personality could have been either knowingly or unknowingly induced and that it is not an uncommon occurrence. The fact that Uttara was well versed in Sanskrit made it all the more plausible.
What makes Uttara special is the personality that she had induced i.e. Sharada. Before I go any further let us first look at Sharada and examine the information that we have on hand.
Sharada throughout most of her natural life was extremely devoted to the Goddess Durga and if someone were to ask me her caste I won’t hesitate to say that she was a Brahmin and it’s not because of the fact that she had a lot of Sanskrit influences in the way and manner in which she spoke Bengali (this became apparent during the interviews) but because of her devotion to the Goddess Durga.
Even today, worship of the Goddess Durga is limited only to the Brahmins in the north and while people in the south know of her, they don’t worship her to the extent and in the manner that the Northern Brahmins do. Nepal is the only exception.
In short she is not a Goddess who is popular among other castes and that raises or possess another interesting question. How did Uttara merge or meld with an alternate personality that is so diverse? I dare say that Uttara wasn’t a Brahmin because her father was from Maharashtra and her mother was from the south.
Brahmins don’t generally marry out of caste so it is easy enough to adduce that she was not a Brahmin unless of course her parents were both Brahmins from different parts of India but even then I think Sharada is specific only to Uttara and her sudden appearance was not a result of ancestral or genetical ties .
Considering the fact that Sharada lived in the early 1800s, at a time when India was deeply stooped in caste segregation, the type of knowledge that she displayed would have been only available to Brahmins.
Sharada’s surname just based on her characteristics or mannerisms alone would have been one of the following: Mukhopadhyay, Bandhopadhyay, Chattopadhyay, Gangopadhyay, Ghoshal, Sanyal, Bagchi, Bhaduri, Lahiri, Maitra, Bhattacharya, Chakraborty, Goswami, Acharya, Kanjilal, Patitunda and Pakrashi i.e. names that are synonymous to Bengali Brahmins.
Sharada was married at the age of 7. It was common among Brahmins especially during the period that she lived in to marry their children off at a young age and it was prevalent until the mid-1800s.
It was at about this time that religiously oriented or centered social reform groups like the Brahmo Samaj and the Arya Samaj pioneered work to prevent or prohibit child marriages and their efforts had some measure of success in the 1860s when the Indian Penal Code enacted rules to protect young children.
Now, I have to add that despite being formally wedded, the couples never lived together until both the husband and wife reached the age of maturity. Sometimes they never lived together at all but they would remain married or could never remarry.
One of the fundamental reasons that children were married off in this manner was to keep the religious teachings intact and to limit the dissemination of Sanskrit. It was only in 1880s that child marriages received national attention and it was followed by the enactment of the Age of Consent Bill.
Sharada was taught to read by her uncle, which is another salient feature that clearly indicated that she was from a higher caste because at the time that she lived, reading and writing was limited only to the upper castes.
Sharada lived with her maternal aunt and I can’t help but wonder as to what happened to her parents. There appears to be no mention of them. Sharada was a native Bengali speaker and behaved in the manner of an orthodox married Bengali woman. She appeared somewhat shy and demure and in the initial stages anyway she did not recognize Uttara’s parents, her siblings or any of her friends.
It was like she had stepped out of another time zone, maybe she was trapped at a specific point in time, it’s impossible to say. Either way she appeared to be oblivious to the changes that had occurred since her death.
In short there were two different people that inhabited the same body, each unaware of the other, at least at the start anyway.
Could this be a case of reincarnation? I doubt it. In instances of reincarnation the subject remembers his or her past life in light of his or her present life as opposed to completely assuming another identity. I am convinced that we are dealing with two different personalities.
Sharada was very forthcoming in the way and manner that she spoke and freely divulged details pertaining to her life. She didn’t feel afraid at all and neither did she appear intimidated in any way.
A normal person if they were suddenly exposed to strangers or surroundings that they were unfamiliar with would be apprehensive, uncomfortable and even afraid at times but there is nothing to indicate that here at all.
To the contrary Sharada appeared friendly, open and to some extent from what she had said, even eager to share her life with others around her. She may have been shy but she wasn’t in anyway intimidated.
There is something else that leads me to think that Sharada may have been induced. A premonitory sign usually preceded the phases during which Sharada manifested. Uttara first had a sensation like that of ants crawling on the top of her head. A few hours later, she became Sharada.
It’s not the first time I’ve stumbled across similar symptoms. It is the same sensations that shamans feel when a divine entity is about to take control of their body. According to some shamans it is like a current ripping through their body.
There were also instances when Sharada would appear overnight i.e. Uttara would go to bed as Uttara and wake up as Sharada, and as soon as she woke up, she’d dress in Bengali fashion, wash her hair while bathing and place a vermillion mark between the parting of her hair, like a married woman. I’m not certain if she left her hair loose or did it up in some fashion or manner that suited her.
At the beginning, Sharada appeared distant towards Uttara’s parents and communicated with them only in gestures because she didn’t understand a word of Marathi but she later managed to pick up some Marathi.
She appeared for all intense and purposes to be alive and her mannerisms were very unlike that of any spirit that appeared when a shaman went into the trance state i.e. it was much more subtle.
It was like Uttara’s parents were suddenly gifted with another daughter and I say that because that’s what she appeared to be and that’s exactly how I would have treated her.
Sharada had no knowledge of modern utensils or modern innovations and she didn’t have the slightest clue as to how to use many of the modern amenities that we take for granted, but she was amicable, friendly, willing to learn and was communicative. She didn’t even know how to open a bottle of pickles (which is regarded as a standard item that is available in every Indian household).
She took no interest in any of the household chores and she didn’t do any housework which reaffirms my belief that she is an upper caste girl. She spent almost all her time in worship or activities relating to the worship of the Goddess Durga.
According to researchers the Sharada phase usually ended with an aarthi or homa - a Vedic type of worship which pays homage to the 5 elements i.e. earth, wind, water, fire and aether. Fire the symbol of purity is essential in the performance of an aarthi, which tends to suggest to me, as perplexing as it may seem, that she wanted to convey the message that she was pure or maybe innocent.
The Sharada phases lasted from a day up to 6 weeks. The median duration was approximately 2 days but the average duration, because of two long phases that lasted 41 and 43 days, was slightly over eight and a half days.
Despite initially being unaware of each other both Uttara and Sharada over time began to drop hints that they were growing accustomed to each other. Uttara from what I have read so far appears to be an auspicious or fortuitous child.
I am going to revert back, temporarily at least, to Uttara’s parents. Prior to her birth Uttara’s mother had received intimation of being bitten on the foot by a cobra (Sharada died as a result of being bitten on the toe by a cobra and she would withdraw her foot in fear whenever a cobra was mentioned).
Working along the same lines, Uttara’s father had a fascination for Bengali people and all things Bengali and it leads to me to the conclusion that Sharada’s parents whose names she gave as Brajanath Chattopadhaya (father) and Renuka Devi (mother) were G.M. Huddar and Manorama in their past lives.
According to Hindu marital customs all couples who are married in the orthodox Hindu manner remain married for 7 lifetimes. I tend to take it as an eternity because after 7 lifetimes they achieve either salvation or liberation and are not reborn. There are exceptions of course but the exceptions do not apply here.
These couples normally have the same children unless there is a cusp child i.e. a child that is born between two families (that is the best way I can think of describing these children).
So Brajanath Chattopadhaya and Renuka Devi had in addition to Sharada, 6 other children including Uttara. The number should correspond with the exact number of children G.M. Huddar and Manorama had minus the one child who was Sharada.
I don’t think Sharada was ever reincarnated, while her parents and her siblings were. She for some reason or the other, being exceptionally devoted to the Goddess Durga, was spared the rigors of mortal existence; having said that all cusp children come under the auspice of the Goddess Durga.
Initially Sharada’s parents did not notice a pattern in Sharada’s appearance but later they realized that her appearance coincided with the 8th day of the waxing or the waning moon.
In the Hindu calendar, these days are called Ashtami days and these days are particularly significant to the Goddess Durga. These are the days that are devoted to the worship of the Goddess.
Maha Durga Ashtami is the most significant of all Ashtami days and it is the day, the Goddess Durga appeared in the form of Mahishasura Mardini to slay the buffalo headed demon Mahishasura (that is why buffalos are sometimes slaughtered during the festivities i.e. to reenact the slaying of the demon Mahishasura).
Though Sharada’s appearance did not coincide with Ashtami all the time it happened consistently or significantly enough to form a trend or a pattern. If I were to hazard a guess, I’d say that the Sharada personality would have been strongest on Maha Durga Ashtami.
Sharada gave the interviewers as much information as possible. For example, she wrote her husband’s name down as Swami Vishwanath Mukhopadhaya and wrote her father in-law’s name down as Nand Kishore Mukhopadhaya.
She gave details of how she had travelled from Burdwan (West Bengal) to Kalighat in Calcutta and how she had gone to Shivpur (Bangladesh) with her husband. From Shivpur she had gone to the Tara Devi Temple at Shikarpur (Bangladesh) by boat. She also told interviewers of her visit to the Hansheshwari Temple at Bansberia. All in all, she was fairly religious.
She also mentioned that she’d had two miscarriages and that she had not given birth to any children. When she was 7 months pregnant with the 3rd child, a snake had bitten her on her toe while she was gathering some flowers and she fell unconscious. She was 22 at the time and died as a result.
I think that her death came as a shock and that she had appeared to spend some time with her parents who I suspect were on their 7th or last marriage cycle. Sharada wasn’t prepared or ready for death and maybe she just wanted to say her goodbyes.
Copyright © 2019 by Kathiresan Ramachanderam